Bacteria Science Fair Project: How Does Bleach Kill Bacteria? | Science project | (2023)

Science project

Bacteria Science Fair Project: How Does Bleach Kill Bacteria? | Science project | (1)

Bacteria are one celled organisms that are essential for all life’s survival, but they also cause many diseases, including strep throat, cholera, many types of food poisoning, and the Black Plague, to name just a few. Luckily, humans have discovered several disinfectants, or chemicals that kill bacteria. Household bleach, a solution of sodium hypochlorite and water, is one such disinfectant. So how does bleach kill bacteria? It works by damaging bacteria’s proteins (not unlike the way heat makes the protein in egg white solid). Bleach, as you may know, stings human eyes and causes rashes, so it’s important for us to use just enough bleach to kill bacteria. In this bacteria science fair project, you can investigate what concentration of bleach is sufficient for killing bacteria. Please note that this experiment requires a sizeable investment in both equipment and materials. It would be ideal for you to borrow as many of the materials and equipment you can from a high school or college science lab (or a medical lab, if you have access). It would also be ideal to have the hands-on assistance of someone who has done microbiology experiments before.

Also, make sure you have a good understanding of the necessary precautions when working with live bacteria. The species of E. coli suggested is categorized as safe for high school classrooms, but you still need to clean your work area with 10% bleach solution both before and after the experiment. You should clean your hands and wear sterile gloves, and of course no one should eat anything in the area where you are working! The hard thing about doing this kind of experiment is that bacteria are everywhere, so in order to make sure you are doing a controlled investigation, you have to make sure that your initial materials are sterile, or treated and packaged so that they contain no microorganisms. When you are done with your experiment, make sure that all the bacteria on your plates are dead, either by bleach or autoclave. Also be sure to wear protective clothing and eyewear when working with bleach.



If you’re careful and follow the proper procedures, you will find that bacterial experiments are some of the most relevant and interesting you can do.


What is the weakest bleach solution that will kill bacteria?



  1. Sterilize the screw-cap culture tubes and water using the autoclave.
  2. Using the permanent marker and labels, make the following labels for your screw-cap culture tubes: 10% bleach, 1% bleach, .1% bleach, .01% bleach, .001% bleach, .0001% bleach, and 0% bleach.
  3. Make a 10% bleach solution for cleaning your work area. In the empty spray bottle, mix 90 mL water with 10 mL bleach.
  4. Clean your work area using the 10% bleach solution.
  5. Transfer 10 mL of the 10% bleach solution to the tube labeled 10% bleach.
  6. Using a sterile transfer pipette, move 9 mL of sterile water to the tube labeled 1% bleach.
  7. Add 1 mL of the 10% bleach solution to the 1% bleach container. Stir.
  8. Using a sterile transfer pipette, move 9 mL of sterile water to the tube labeled .1% bleach.
  9. Add 1 mL of the 1% bleach solution to the .1% bleach container. Stir.
  10. Using a sterile transfer pipette, move 9 mL of sterile water to the tube labeled .01% bleach.
  11. Add 1 mL of the .1% bleach solution to the .01% bleach container. Stir.
  12. Using a sterile transfer pipette, move 9 mL of sterile water to the tube labeled .001% bleach.
  13. Add 1 mL of the .01 % bleach solution to the .001% bleach container. Stir.
  14. Using a sterile transfer pipette, move 9 mL of sterile water to the tube labeled .0001% bleach.
  15. Add 1 mL of the .001 % bleach solution to the .0001% bleach container. Stir.
  16. In the last tube, put in 10 mL of sterilized water. What purpose does this tube serve?
  17. Using a new sterile inoculating loop each time, put .1 mL of E. coli culture into each of the seven containers. Shake well.
  18. Once you have put the bacteria in all the containers, let the seven tubes sit for ½ hour. Why?
  19. Using the permanent marker, label the bottom of each nutrient agar plate 10% bleach, 1% bleach, .1% bleach, .01% bleach, .001% bleach, .0001% bleach, and 0% bleach.
  20. Shake the tube of 10% bleach. Dip a sterile cotton swab in the liquid.
  21. Gently rub the swab over the agar in the 10% labeled petri dish. Make sure to cover the whole surface and be careful not to break the agar surface.
  22. Repeat the shaking, soaking, and rubbing over the agar for each of the other solutions.
  23. Clean your work area with the 10% bleach solution.
  24. Place the plates upside down (with the media in the upper dish, cover on the bottom) in the incubator for 24 hours at 100 F, 37 C. If you do not have an incubator, you can let the plates sit at a lower temperature, but the process will take longer.
  25. Make a hypothesis as to which bleach solution will be just strong enough to kill the bacteria. Explain your reasoning.
  26. Check your plates regularly for bacterial colonies. Colonies are little white dots that appear on the surface of the agar.
  27. Organize your results in a data table.

Bleach Concentration

Number of E. coli colonies







If a plate has many colonies, you can estimate the number of colonies by counting only in one quarter of the plate and multiplying by 4.If the number of colonies is truly overwhelming, you can write TNTC–too numerous to count.

  1. Once you are done counting your colonies, soak the plates in 10% bleach solution before throwing in the trash. Why is it necessary to soak the plates in bleach first?
  2. Clean your work area with 10% bleach solution. Make sure to thoroughly wash your hands before eating.


You are likely to find no colonies on the plates with 10% and 1% bleach solution. The lower concentrations of bleach are likely to have progressively more and more colonies. The plate with no bleach is likely to have a very high number of colonies.


The tube with water only served as your control: you need to see how many bacteria would grow without any bleach (if the control agar plate had no bacteria growing on it, you’d know that your experimental results were invalid). You waited a ½ hour after adding the bleach to each of the tubes to make sure that the bleach solution had time to work, as it takes time for the bleach to damage the bacteria’s proteins. The 10% and 1% bleach solutions contained enough bleach to kill all the bacteria.

You might be wondering why you were instructed use 10% solution to clean your area when your experiment demonstrated that a 1% solution would be sufficient. Unfortunately, many bleach solutions lose their effectiveness over time, so a stronger solution will kill 100% of bacteria longer. You might advocate for using fresh 1% bleach solution regularly.

(Video) Which Disinfectants Work Best?

Going Further

You might repeat this experiment using samples of 1% bleach solution that have sat for 0 days, one day, two days, three days, and four days to see how quickly bleach solutions lose their effectiveness.

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How does bleach kill bacteria? ›

Now, researchers have found that bleach can kill bacteria by attacking proteins, quickly destroying their delicate shape. Furthermore, the model bacterium Escherichia coli even produces a protein that is activated by bleach and rescues injured proteins before the damage becomes permanent.

Where in the house can you find the most bacteria science fair project? ›

Some good locations to find a lot of bacteria are door handles, bus or train seats, desks, and faucet handles. Use only one cotton swab per location. It's a good idea to wear gloves during this experiment so that you don't get sick from any of the germs.

Does bleach actually kill bacteria? ›

Bleach is a strong and effective disinfectant – its active ingredient sodium hypochlorite is effective in killing bacteria, fungi and viruses, including influenza virus – but it is easily inactivated by organic material.

Which disinfectant kills the most bacteria science fair? ›

The results of the experiment were that bleach worked the most effectively to kill bacteria.

How much bacteria does bleach kill? ›

Most household bleach products claim that bleach can kill 99.9% of germs and bacteria, because it cannot be proven on every single type of micro-organism that exists.

Does bleach kill bacteria in water? ›

Can I use bleach to disinfect water? Yes. Household chlorine bleach kills most pathogens. Bleach works best when added to warm water that is about 20˚C (68˚F).

What is the independent variable in the bacteria experiment? ›

If bacterial growth is affected by temperature, raising the temperature will result in an increase in bacterial growth. Independent variable: temperature Dependent variable: number of bacteria 3.

What is the hypothesis for the growing bacteria experiment? ›

The experiment is relevant to the conditions of bacteria growth. The hypothesis is, if bacteria are cultured in a warm environment, then the bacteria will grow at a more rapid pace.

Will bleach kill bacteria on skin? ›

A bath with a small amount of bleach added to the water may help lessen symptoms of chronic eczema (atopic dermatitis). Eczema is an itchy skin condition, often worsened by a bacterial infection. An eczema bleach bath can kill bacteria on the skin, reducing itching, redness and scaling.

Does bleach kill bacteria and mold? ›

Bleach, soap– or any other product—cannot effectively clean up mold if you do not remove the mud and dirt first. If your home has moderate mold damage, follow these steps to clean up your home: If the inside of your home has only a little mold and minor water damage you may not need to use bleach.

How do you kill bacteria without bleach? ›

Hydrogen peroxide and white vinegar form the basis of many of these home solutions. Some of them work well as cleaners and can even kill a majority (up to 80% - leaving the surviving 20% to grow stronger creating superbugs) of some germs and bacteria.

What disinfectant kills bacteria? ›

Bleach solutions will be effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi when properly diluted. Learn more about cleaning and disinfecting surfaces using bleach solutions.

What disinfecting agent kills bacteria? ›

Microbicidal Activity. Hydrogen peroxide is active against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses, and spores 78, 654. A 0.5% accelerated hydrogen peroxide demonstrated bactericidal and virucidal activity in 1 minute and mycobactericidal and fungicidal activity in 5 minutes 656.

What concentration of bleach kills E coli? ›

You need the correct ratio of bleach and water to kill germs. Use the 1500 ppm solution for general disinfection of many organisms (such as MRSA, E. coli, Staph, Salmonella + SARS-CoV-2, HIV-1, Rhinovirus, Rotavirus).

What does bleach not kill? ›

Bleach Does Not Kill Mold – National Organization of Remediators and Microbial Inspectors.

How does bleach work? ›

Bleaching action occurs through oxidation or reduction. Chlorine bleaches work through oxidation; they break the chemical bond of the chromophore (a color-producing portion of pigment) rendering it non-reactive with light. Reductions convert double bonds to single bonds, again making them non-reactive to visible light.

Does bleach kill poop bacteria? ›

To be used for all general purpose disinfecting, not for clean up of body fluids (vomit, feces, blood). Slowly add 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of bleach to 2 cups (500 ml) of water. To be used on surfaces contaminated with feces, vomit, urine or blood. Slowly add ½ cup (125 ml) of bleach to 4 ½ cups (1125 ml) of water.

Does bleach kill STDS? ›

Rinsing needles and syringes with bleach is not an effective way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C transmission. While some studies show that bleach can kill HIV and hepatitis C in needles and syringes in a laboratory setting, this effectiveness does not translate to the real world.

Does bleach kill bacteria in sink? ›

Bleach is excellent to clean kitchen sinks, but it's also dangerous. Many people regularly use ordinary bleach since it's both highly sanitary and cost-effective. However, bleach will easily clean molds, viruses, germs, and bacteria.

Does bleach kill parasites? ›

The usual disinfectants, including most commonly used bleach solutions, have little effect on the Cryptosporidium parasite. An application of ei- ther hydrogen peroxide or ammonia seems to work best.

What is an example of a science fair project hypothesis? ›

Here are some examples:
  • As a question: Does temperature affect the rate of plant growth?
  • As a statement: Temperature may affect the rate of plant growth.
  • As an if/then statement: If temperature is related to the rate of plant growth, then changing the temperature will change the rate of plant growth.

How do you write a science fair project result? ›

Good scientific writing explains:
  1. The goal(s) of your experiment.
  2. How you performed the experiment.
  3. The results you obtained.
  4. Why these results are important.

How do you write a science fair project question? ›

Here are some characteristics of a good science fair project question: The question should be interesting enough to read about, then work on for the next few weeks. There should be at least three sources of written information on the subject. You want to be able to build on the experience of others!

What are the controlled variables in bacterial growth experiment? ›

-Controlled variables The controlled variables composed of the time, environment, room temperature and the amount of anti-microbial products used during the testing. It is of great importance to maintain these variables constant during the experiment to ensure the results are not altering in any way.

What are the three independent variables in an experiment? ›

An experiment usually has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled. The independent variable is the one that is changed by the scientist. To insure a fair test, a good experiment has only ONE independent variable.

What are the independent and dependent variables in her experiment? ›

In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. The dependent variable is the response that is measured. One way to think about it is that the dependent variable depends on the change in the independent variable.

What was the hypothesis for this experiment? ›

The hypothesis is an educated guess as to what will happen during your experiment. The hypothesis is often written using the words "IF" and "THEN." For example, "If I do not study, then I will fail the test." The "if' and "then" statements reflect your independent and dependent variables.

What is the hypothesis of bacteria? ›

The microbial diversity hypothesis suggests that the diversity and turnover of bacterial species in the gut mucosa and other areas around the body are key factors in the regulation of the immune system. This is in contrast to the historical belief that the body showed stable colonization with certain microbial species.

What is the purpose of bacteria experiment? ›

They live all around us and inside us. Most bacteria are harmless or even beneficial, but some can cause diseases and associated symptoms. In fact, bacteria cause most infectious diseases. A bacteria culture is a test to confirm whether you have a bacterial infection.

What chemical in bleach kills bacteria? ›

But our bodies have been using bleach's active component, hypochlorous acid, to help clean house for millennia. As part of our natural response to infection, certain types of immune cells produce hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria.

How long to soak something in bleach to kill bacteria? ›

Bleach solutions require a full 10 minutes of contact time to ensure complete disinfection. If bleach solution evaporates in less than 10 minutes, a greater volume of solution should be applied. 5. After disinfection with bleach solutions, surfaces should be rinsed and dried.

Can a pregnant woman take a bleach bath? ›

There's no evidence that using bleaching products will harm your unborn baby during pregnancy.

Does bleach kill bed bugs? ›

While bleach will kill bed bugs that are directly exposed to it, it will not eliminate bed bugs that are hiding and do not come into contact with the bleach spray.

Does bleach kill ants? ›

All brands of bleach can kill ants. Clorox is the most popular brand of bleach out there but there are other brands that can also get the job done when it comes to killing ants. Although bleach can kill ants, like traps and baits, it will not be able to completely get rid of the ant problem.

Does bleach kill roaches? ›

Bleach can kill roaches on contact. However, pouring it down a drain can potentially release toxic fumes, and cause long-term damage to your system. While the use of bleach may help with a cockroach problem, because of its toxic nature it should never be poured down a drain or toilet.

What kills only bad bacteria? ›

Extremely hot water of 140 degrees Fahrenheit or more is required to kill bacteria. Most restaurants rely on this method to kill bacteria on dishes and cooking utensils, and clean surfaces as well. Chlorine is also used to kill bacteria. This is why chlorine is a part of the cleaning routine for swimming pools.

What kills bacteria better bleach or vinegar? ›

“Of course, vinegar does eliminate some things, but it's important to note it's not a complete solution to disinfectant. It is only 90% effective against bacteria and around 80 percent effective against viruses and mold or mildew. Bleach, however, eliminates 99.9% of bacteria, viruses, and mold or mildew.

Can bacteria be resistant to bleach? ›

Chlorine-resistant bacteria (CRB) are commonly defined as bacteria with high resistance to chlorine disinfection or bacteria which can survive or even regrow in the residual chlorine.

What should you never mix with bleach? ›

Don't mix bleach with ammonia, acids, or other cleaners.

Mixing bleach with common cleaning products can cause serious injuries. Be sure to always read the product label before using a cleaning product.

Can vinegar be mixed with bleach? ›

Mixing bleach and vinegar creates potentially lethal chlorine gas. If you notice a pungent smell after mixing household cleaners, you should immediately leave the area and try to breathe in fresh air.

What is the best natural bacteria killer? ›

1 - Vinegar

This clean, natural and biodegradable liquid is more than a cooking product. It's made up of 95% water and 5% acetic acid, which kills about 80% of germs.

How do you disinfect with bleach? ›

Mix 1 cup (240 mL) of bleach in 1 gallon of water. Wash surfaces with the bleach mixture. If surfaces are rough, scrub them with a stiff brush. Rinse surfaces with clean water.

What cell kills bacteria? ›

Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune system by phagocytosing, killing, and digesting bacteria and fungi.

What temperature kills bacteria? ›

Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees. Bacteria will not multiply but may start to die between 140 and 165 degrees. Bacteria will die at temperatures above 212 degrees.

Why is bleach so effective at killing bacteria? ›

Bleach is a strong and effective disinfectant. Its active ingredient, sodium hypochlorite, denatures protein in micro-organisms and is therefore effective in killing bacteria, fungus and viruses.

How does bleach affect bacteria? ›

Now, researchers have found that bleach can kill bacteria by attacking proteins, quickly destroying their delicate shape. Furthermore, the model bacterium Escherichia coli even produces a protein that is activated by bleach and rescues injured proteins before the damage becomes permanent.

What is the pH of bleach? ›

Bleach: pH 11-13

Bleach is one of the most common cleaning supplies in households and commercial settings. This particular product has a pH between 11 and 13. Its high level of alkalinity is what makes it corrosive. As a result, ventilation is important when using bleach.

Is chloroform just bleach and rubbing alcohol? ›

Bleach and rubbing alcohol create chloroform. This combination is highly toxic and can cause damage to your eyes, lungs, and liver.

Does bleach disinfect better than vinegar? ›

Bleach is great for disinfecting. A registered disinfectant, it will, by definition, kill 99.9 percent of germs that it comes into contact with, within five or ten minutes of contact. In contrast, the germs that vinegar does kill often need half an hour of contact to be affected.

Can you mix vinegar and bleach? ›

Mixing bleach and vinegar creates potentially lethal chlorine gas. If you notice a pungent smell after mixing household cleaners, you should immediately leave the area and try to breathe in fresh air.

Is bleach the best cleaner? ›

There are endless ways to clean, but simply cleaning won't always actually kill viruses and bacteria. If you're looking to disinfect something, bleach is one of your best bets.

What happens when you mix pee and bleach? ›

Chlorine gas can also be released when bleach is mixed with urine, such as when cleaning the area around a toilet or when pets stains are cleaned. Both chloramine and chlorine gases are immediately irritating with a very pungent odor, causing watering of the eyes, runny nose and coughing.

Does bleach kill life? ›

Hair dye and bleach haven't been scientifically proven to kill lice. However, anecdotal evidence indicates that they may be effective. They're not, however, able to kill lice eggs, known as nits. Other lice removal treatments will most likely be more effective.

What not to mix with bleach? ›

Don't mix bleach with ammonia, acids, or other cleaners.

Mixing bleach with common cleaning products can cause serious injuries. Be sure to always read the product label before using a cleaning product.

What happens if you mix bleach and baking soda? ›

Mixing baking soda and bleach can be dangerous because of the chemicals' reactivity. Baking soda is a weak base, meaning it reacts with other chemicals to form compounds that can create hazardous gas and explosions.

Can you mix peroxide and bleach? ›

Can You Mix Hydrogen Peroxide and Bleach? Like any other household cleaner or chemical, hydrogen peroxide is another thing you shouldn't mix with bleach. It can create toxic gases that are dangerous to anyone in the area.

What happens if you mix bleach and hydrogen peroxide? ›

Bleach plus hydrogen peroxide creates oxygen gas so violently, it can cause an explosion. “One should not mix household cleaners as a general rule,” Langerman says. “You do not necessarily make a strong cleaner by mixing two cleaners together.”

What's stronger than bleach? ›

Hypochlorous acid is much stronger as a disinfectant than bleach, but it actually has lower pH, salt content, and parts per million of chlorine.

What kills germs better bleach or peroxide? ›

Bleach is an economical, all-round disinfectant, but it requires careful handling and dilution for effective use. Hydrogen peroxide has a kinder environmental footprint and for effective disinfectant and water treatment, stabilised hydrogen peroxide will work against a wide variety of bacteria.

What's better than bleach? ›

Top 7 Bleach Alternatives For Your Home
  • Vinegar. Vinegar is great for a lot of things, and one of those includes replacing your bleach. ...
  • Baking Soda. If you want a great whitening agent, baking soda will do the job. ...
  • Hydrogen Peroxide. ...
  • Lemons. ...
  • Tea Tree Oil. ...
  • Castile Soap. ...
  • Sunlight.
Jul 11, 2019


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